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INS Memo on Unlawful Presence -- June 17, 1997



Date:		June 17, 1997

Subject:	Additional Guidance for Implementing Sections 
212(a)(6) and 212(a)(9) of the Immigration and 
Nationality Act (Act).

To: 		Management Team
All Regional Directors
All District Directors (Including Foreign) 
All Regional Counsels
All District Counsel
All OICís (including foreign)
All Port Directors
All Service Center Directors
All Training Academies (Glynco and Arteia)
All Chief Patrol Agents
All Asylum Officers

From: 		Office of Programs (HQPGM)


Summary

	The purpose of this memorandum is to provide interim guidance on the 
grounds of inadmissibility under sections 212(a)(6)(B) and 212(a)(9)(C) of 
the Immigration and Nationality Act (Act).  This memorandum also modifies 
the advice provided in its interim memorandum (96ACT 026) dated March 31, 
1997, with respect to: (a) calculating the periods of an alienís unlawful 
presence in the United States for purposes of determining inadmissibility 
under section 212(a)(9)(C)(i)(I) of the Act; and (b) tolling the periods of 
an alienís unlawful presence in the United States while an adjustment of 
status application is pending.

Section 212(a)(6)(B) of the Act

Applicability

	Section 212(a)(6)(B) of the Act, as amended by section 301(c)(1) of 
IIRAIRA, renders inadmissible any alien who without reasonable cause  
failed to attend or remain in attendance at a hearing to determine his or 
her inadmissibility or deportability.  Such aliens are inadmissible for 5 
years after date of departure or removal.  The alien, therefore, must have 
been subsequently removed, or must have departed the United States in order 
for this ground of inadmissibility to apply.
	The Service has determined that section 212(a)(6)(B) of the Act does 
not apply to aliens who failed to attend a deportation proceeding under 
section 242 of the Act or an exclusion hearing under section 236 of the Act 
(as those two sections existed prior to their amendment by IIRAIRA).  Those 
proceedings would have commenced upon filing with an immigration court Form 
I-221, Order to Show Cause and Notice of Hearing, or Form I-122, Notice to 
Applicant for Admission Detained for Hearing before Immigration Judge, 
respectively.  Aliens placed in proceedings after April 1, 1997, will have 
been issued the new charging document, Form I-682, Notice to Appear.  
Therefore, any alien placed in deportation or exclusion proceedings before 
April 1, 1997, will not be considered inadmissible under section 
212(a)(6)(B) of the Act for failure to attend the removal hearing, even if 
it was not actually scheduled until after April 1, 1997.
	Note that an alien who failed to attend or remain in attendance at a 
removal, deportation, or exclusion hearing may have received an in absentia 
order of removal.  Thus, such an alien may also be inadmissible under 
section 212(a)(9)(A) of the Act.  See March 31, 1997, memorandum (96ACT 
026).

Reasonable Cause

	Aliens placed in proceedings on or after April 1, 1997, who can 
establish that failure to attend or remain in attendance at a removal 
proceeding was for reasonable cause are not inadmissible under section 
212(a)(6)(B) of the Act.  The alien would establish reasonable cause before 
the immigration judge, if seeking to reopen the proceeding; to the consular 
officer, if applying for a visa; to the inspecting officer, if applying for 
admission; or to the Serviceís adjudicating officer, if applying for 
adjustment of status before the Service.  The burden rests with the alien 
to establish there was reasonable cause for not attending or remaining at 
the removal hearing.

Section 212(a)(9)(B) of the Act

Unlawful Presence

	Section 212(a)(9)(B)(ii) of the Act defines the term ďunlawfully 
presentĒ for purposes of sections 212(a)(9)(B)(i) and 212(a)(9)(C)(i)(I) of 
the Act.  For purposes of these sections, an alien is deemed unlawfully 
present in the United States if present after expiration of a period of 
stay authorized by the Attorney General or present in the United States 
without being admitted or paroled.

Three and Ten-Year Bars to Admission

	Section 212(a)(9)(B)(i) of the Act is broken into two sub-groups 
according to the period of unlawful presence in the United States.  Section 
212(a)(9)(B)(i)(I) of the Act renders inadmissible those aliens who were 
unlawfully present for more than 180 days, but less than one year, and 
subjects them to a 3-year bar to admission.  Section 212(a)(9)(B)(i)(II) 
renders inadmissible those aliens unlawfully present for 1 year or more, 
and subjects them to a 10-year bar to admission.  These grounds of 
inadmissibility are applicable only to aliens seeking visas or readmission 
to the United States following a prior period of unlawful presence in the 
United States.  

	Unlike section 212(a)(9)(C)(i)(I) of the Act, which is discussed 
further below, the periods of unlawful presence under sections 
212(a)(9)(B)(i)(I) and (II) are not counted in the aggregate.  For example, 
section 212(a)(9)(B)(i)(I) of the Act would not apply to an alien who made 
two prior visits to the United States, accrued 4 months of unlawful 
presence during each visit, and is now applying for a nonimmigrant visa to 
make a third visit to the United States.  This is because each period of 
unlawful presence in the United States is counted separately for purposes 
of section 212(a)(9)(B)(i) of the Act, and in this example no single period 
of unlawful presence exceeded 180 days.  It should be noted, however, that 
the consular officer would exercise discretion in deciding whether to grant 
the nonimmigrant visa, given the alienís prior periods of unlawful presence 
in the United States.

Time Exempted by Statute

	Section 212(a)(9)(B)(iii) of the Act provides that certain periods of 
presence in the United States are not considered unlawful.  This exemption 
includes time spent in the United States while the alien is:

Under the age of 18

A bona fide applicant for asylum (including time while administrative or 
judicial review is pending), unless employed  without authorization;

Under family unity protection pursuant to section 301 of the Immigration 
Act of 1990, as amended; or

A battered spouse or child able to establish a substantial connection 
between the status violation/unlawful entry and the abuse.

Tolling for Good Cause

	Section 212(a)(9)(B)(iv) of the Act provides that certain periods of 
time spent in the United States are tolled (suspended) and do not count 
towards the periods of unlawful presence described under section 
212(a)(9)(B)(i)(I).  In order for the tolling provision to apply, the alien 
must have been lawfully admitted or paroled into the United States, must 
have filed the application before the previously authorized stay expired, 
and must not have been employed without authorization in the United States 
before the application was filed or while it was pending.  By statute, the 
tolling is limited to 120 days and covers the following applications:

Applications for extension of stay under the Serviceís regulations at 8 CFR 
214.1; and
Applications for change of nonimmigrant status under section 248 of the 
Act.

Treatment of Pending Adjustment of Status Applications

	The Service has revisited the guidance provided in its March 31, 1997, 
memorandum with respect to tolling the period of unlawful presence for 
aliens with pending adjustment of status applications.  Properly filed 
applications for adjustment of status under sections 245(a) and 245(i) of 
the Act will not be subject to the 120-day tolling provisions under section 
212(a)(9)(B)(iv) of the Act.  Aliens with properly filed applications for 
adjustment of status under both sections 245(a) and 245(i) of the Act will 
be considered aliens present in the United States under a period of stay 
authorized by the Attorney General.  Such period will also cover renewal of 
a denied application in proceedings.  An alien who first files an 
application for adjustment of status after being served with a notice to 
appear for removal proceedings (Form I-862), however, is not deemed to have 
a period of stay authorized by the Attorney General.

Aliens Present in the United States Under a Period of Stay Authorized by 
the Attorney General

	For purposes of sections 212(a)(9)(B)(i) and 212(a)(9)(C)(i)(I) of the 
Act only, the Service considers the following classes of aliens to be 
present in the United States pursuant to a period of stay authorized by the 
Attorney General:

Aliens with properly filed applications for adjustment of status under 
sections 245 and 245(i) of the Act with the Service (as described above);

Aliens admitted to the United States as refugees under section 207 of the 
Act,

Aliens granted asylum under section 208 of the Act;

Aliens granted withholding of deportation/removal under section 243(h) of 
the Act for aliens placed in proceedings before April 1, 1997, or under 
section 241(b)(3) of the Act for aliens placed in proceedings on or after 
April 1, 1997;

Aliens under a current grant of Deferred Enforced Departure (DED) pursuant 
to an order by the President;

Aliens under a current grant of Temporary Protected Status (TPS) before 
April 1, 1997, under section 244A of the Act, or after April 1, 1997, under 
section 244 of the Act; and

Cuban-Haitian entrants under section 202(b) of Pub. L. 99-603


Aliens Not Considered to be in a Period of Stay Authorized by the Attorney 
General 

	For purposes of sections 212(a)(9)(B)(i) and 212(a)(9)(C)(i)(I) of the 
Act the Service considers the following classes of Aliens NOT to be present 
in the United States pursuant to a period of stay authorized by the 
Attorney General:

Aliens under an order of supervision;
Aliens granted deferred action status;
Aliens with pending applications for cancellation of removal;
Aliens with pending applications for withholding of removal;
Aliens issued voluntary departure prior to, during, or following 
proceedings;
Aliens granted satisfactory departure; and
Aliens in Federal court litigation.


Section 212(a)(9)(C) of the Act

Section 212(a)(9)(C)(i)(I) of the Act

	Section 212(a)(9)(C)(i)(I) of the Act renders inadmissible those 
aliens who were previously unlawfully present in the United States for an 
aggregate period of more than one year who enter or attempt to re-enter the 
United States without being admitted.  These aliens re permanently 
inadmissible, however, after they have been outside the United States for 
at least 10 years, they may seek consent to reapply for admission from the 
Attorney General.	

	The Service has revisited its March 31, 1997, guidance with respect to 
measuring time unlawfully present under this ground of inadmissibility.  No 
period of unlawful presence in the United States prior to April 1, 1997, is 
considered for purposes of applying section 212(a)(9)(C)(i)(I) of the Act.  
Therefore, only those aliens entering or attempting to enter the United 
States without being admitted on or after April 1, 1998, following an 
aggregate period of unlawful presence of 1 year or more are inadmissible 
under section 212(a)(9)(C)(i)(I) of the Act.

Section 212(a)(9)(C)(i)(II) of the Act

	Section 212(a)(9)(C)(i)(II) of the Act renders inadmissible those 
aliens who have been ordered removed under sections 235(b)(1) or 240 of the 
Act, or any other provision of law, and who enter or attempt to reenter the 
United States without being admitted.  These aliens are also permanently 
inadmissible, but may seek consent to reapply for admission from the 
Attorney General after they have been outside of the United States for 10 
years.

	Section 212(a)(9)(C)(i)(II) of the Act applies to those aliens ordered 
removed before or after April 1, 1997, and who enter or attempt to reenter 
the United States unlawfully any time on or after April1, 1997.  The alien 
may have been placed in removal proceedings before or after April 1, 1997, 
but the unlawful reentry or attempted unlawful reentry must have occurred 
on or after April 1, 1997.

Treatment of Cases Already Adjudicated
on or After April 1, 1997 Based on the March 31, 1997 Guidance

Applications for Adjustment of Status

	For adjustment of status applications decided on or after April 1, 
1997, that were unfavorable to the alien based solely on a finding of 
inadmissibility under section 212(a)(9)(C) of the Act where the Service 
relied on the March 31, 1997, guidance (96ACT 026), the Service shall 
reopen the adjustment of proceeding at such time as the case is brought to 
the attention of the Service.

Applications for Admission

	For applications for admission denied on or after April 1, 1997, based 
solely on a finding of inadmissibility under section 212(a)(9)(C) of the 
Act where the Service relied on the March 31, 1997, guidance (96ACT 026), 
the Service shall move to cancel proceedings under section 240 of the Act 
at such time as the case is brought to the attention of the Service.  When 
the alienís inspection was deferred on or after April 1, 1997, based solely 
on a finding of inadmissibility under section 212(a)(9)(C) of the Act which 
relied on the March 31 guidance, the Service shall admit the alien if 
otherwise admissible at the time the inspection is completed.  For aliens 
who withdrew their application for admission on or after April 1, 1997, 
solely on a finding of inadmissibility under section 212(a)(9)(C) of the 
Act, subsequent applications for admission shall be without prejudice to 
the withdrawal.  Service look-outs shall be removed at such times as a case 
described above comes to the attention of the Service.

Paul W. Virtue
Acting Executive Associate Commissioner 

CC:	Official File Copy
HQUIRT
HQPGM
HQBEN
HQINS
RCSavini
SCox
JBednarz
PChang
LLoveless

INS:	HQIRT:842-9236:05/27/97;ajr:6/9/97:sc

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